Commercially available DMEM solutions (Invitrogen, Cat. No. 21063-029) may be used as an alternative to using SBF (synthetic/simulated body fluid) solutions.


a Hepes-buffered,

phenol red-free,


glucose-, amino acids- and vitamins-containing

commercial DMEM solution

(which was replenished at every 48 h with an unused solution) was shown to quickly (from 48 h to 1 week) convert brushite (CaHPO4×2H2O) powders, soaked in the above-specified DMEM solutions, at the human body temperature of 36.5 °C, into octacalcium phosphate (Ca8(HPO4)2(PO4)4×5H2O), which is regarded by some researchers to be a precursor phase to “the biological apatites of human hard tissues.”


Weblink for the above-mentioned study (S. Mandel & A. C. Tas, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 30, 245-254, 2010):         doi:10.1016/j.msec.2009.10.009



Just a year before our study, the below study also used a commercial DMEM solution, but quite different in its composition, to test the apatite-forming ability of Ti6Al4V substrates immersed in those solutions at 37°C. The commercial DMEM solution used in the below study was

not Hepes-buffered,

contained phenol red,

contained pyruvate,

contained glucose, amino acids, and vitamins

and this solution was not replenished (in contrast to the constant circulation and replenishment of blood in the human body) 


Weblink for the study preceding ours (J. Faure, A. Balamurugan, H. Benhayoune, P. Torres, G. Balossier, and J.M.F. Ferreira, Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 29, 1252-1257, 2009)            doi:10.1016/j.msec.2008.09.047


Contact: Prof. A. Cuneyt Tas, PhD